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During ancient Roman times, precisely during the Augustan period, (27 B.C.) the creation of the Roman Forum began to concretize under the rule of Octavian, proclaimed Augustus. The Roman Forum is not to be however confused with the Imperial Forums which were constructed afterwards due to the fact that the Roman Forum had become too small for the many growing Roman activities.
Today it is famous for the ruins, from recent escavations, that expressively show the use of urban space during the Roman Age.
Originally marsh land, the Roman Forum is located in a valley between the Palatine and the Capitoline hills. The Romans drained the area and it became the heart of culture, commerce, business, and administration in ancient Rome.
It was expanded to include temples, a senate house and law courts but when the Roman Empire fell the temples, basilicas, and other monuments in the Forum eventually were abandoned and despoiled until even their names were forgotten. The temples and monuments were stripped of the lead and metal clamps that had joined them together, the marble was burned for lime to make cement and the original stones reused.
During the middle ages the monuments that were once part of the Roman Forum were finished to be buried under debris and its location became known as Campo Vaccino or "Cow Field". With the return to Rome of Pope Urban V from Avignon, interest in the ancient monuments increased partly due to a cultural concern but for the premise of new buildings as well. Artists from the 15th century sketched the ruins but it wasn't until the late 18th century that excavations began to rediscover its ancient history.

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